Peter Thiel always asks founders these 7 questions

Peter Thiel always asks founders these 7 questions

Peter Thiel always asks founders these 7 questions


In the ever-evolving world of startups and venture capital, the name Peter Thiel carries a weight of wisdom and success that few can match. As a co-founder of PayPal, an early investor in Facebook, and the author of the groundbreaking book "Zero to One," Peter Thiel has established himself as a thought leader in the tech and venture capital space. His insights have guided countless entrepreneurs on their journey from zero to one – from the inception of a groundbreaking idea to building a monopoly in the market.

In this blog post, we'll dive deep into the seven questions that Peter Thiel always asks founders. These questions, which form the core of his philosophy, provide invaluable guidance to entrepreneurs seeking to create something truly transformative. We'll also explore the criteria for achieving "zero to one," the advice Thiel offers to startups, and the secrets behind his own remarkable success.

What is the Peter Thiel question?

One of the most profound questions Peter Thiel poses to founders is, "What important truth do very few people agree with you on?" This question encourages entrepreneurs to think beyond conventional wisdom and identify uncharted territories where innovation can thrive.

The Importance of Contrarian Thinking

Thiel's emphasis on contrarian thinking is rooted in the belief that true innovation often arises from challenging prevailing beliefs and assumptions. By questioning the consensus, entrepreneurs can uncover unique opportunities that others have overlooked.

What are the criteria for zero to one?

Achieving "zero to one" signifies creating something entirely new and groundbreaking rather than simply improving upon existing ideas. Peter Thiel outlines several criteria for startups to meet to make this leap:


Startups must bring innovation to the forefront of their strategy. Thiel argues that successful ventures should aim to create a technology or product that is at least ten times better than the alternatives available in the market.


Timing is critical in the world of startups. Thiel distinguishes between entering an existing market with a new product and creating a new market altogether. Startups should consider whether they are in a slow-moving or fast-moving market, as this impacts their growth strategy.


Thiel's concept of a monopoly involves dominating a niche market to the extent that competition becomes irrelevant. Entrepreneurs must identify their competitors and devise strategies to establish a monopoly in their chosen space.


Having the right team is paramount. Thiel emphasizes the importance of assembling a team capable of working on real product innovation. The people behind the startup should be driven and possess the skills necessary to execute the vision.

What is the advice from Peter Thiel?

Peter Thiel offers invaluable advice to founders based on his experiences as an entrepreneur and investor. His insights can guide startups towards success:

Focus on Singular Goals

Thiel advises entrepreneurs to focus on one singular goal, rather than spreading their efforts thin across multiple initiatives. By concentrating resources and energy on a specific objective, startups increase their chances of achieving meaningful progress.

Build a Monopoly

Thiel's advocacy for building a monopoly encourages startups to aim for market dominance. By doing so, they can secure long-term profitability and fend off competition.

Why was Peter Thiel successful?

Peter Thiel's success can be attributed to a combination of factors:

Visionary Thinking

Thiel's ability to envision future trends and identify opportunities where others see challenges has been a key driver of his success.


Thiel is known for his willingness to take calculated risks, whether as an entrepreneur or investor. This approach has led to significant rewards.

Mentorship and Networking

Thiel has surrounded himself with talented individuals and leveraged their expertise to navigate the complex world of startups and venture capital.

Now, let's explore the seven questions that Peter Thiel always asks founders in greater detail:

The Engineering Question: Is your solution ten times better than anything else available in the market? (700 words)

Innovation lies at the heart of every successful startup. Peter Thiel's engineering question forces founders to confront a critical aspect of innovation: the degree of improvement their solution offers compared to existing alternatives.

To achieve "zero to one," Thiel argues that a startup's product or technology should be at least ten times better than the closest competition. This might seem like an ambitious benchmark, but it aligns with his belief that incremental improvements rarely lead to transformative success.

Consider the smartphone as an example. When Apple introduced the iPhone in 2007, it wasn't merely a slight improvement over existing cell phones – it was a revolutionary leap forward. Its touchscreen interface, app ecosystem, and sleek design set it apart as a product that was exponentially better than anything else on the market at the time.

Thiel's question challenges founders to think critically about their value proposition. They must assess whether their solution truly offers a substantial improvement or if it's merely an incremental tweak. This evaluation not only defines the product's potential but also shapes the startup's competitive strategy.

Founders must analyze their solution from multiple angles. Is it faster, more efficient, or more cost-effective? Does it provide a superior user experience or solve a problem in a way that no other product does? By striving for a tenfold improvement, startups increase their chances of creating a product that captures the market's attention and becomes a game-changer.

It's important to note that achieving such a level of improvement often requires bold thinking and innovative approaches. Founders must be willing to challenge existing norms, take risks, and invest in research and development to push the boundaries of what's possible.

Additionally, the engineering question underscores the importance of deeply understanding the existing landscape. Founders must be aware of current solutions, their strengths and weaknesses, and the pain points they leave unaddressed. This knowledge not only informs the development process but also aids in effective marketing and positioning of the product as a superior alternative.

In summary, Peter Thiel's engineering question serves as a litmus test for the transformative potential of a startup's idea. It encourages founders to aim high, prioritize innovation, and ensure that their solution offers a significant leap in value compared to existing options. By rigorously evaluating their product against this criterion, startups can set themselves on a path to achieving "zero to one."

The Timing Question: Are you entering an existing market with a new product? Is it a slow-moving market or a fast-moving one? (700 words)

Timing can make or break a startup. Peter Thiel's timing question forces founders to consider the critical factors that determine the success of their venture within the context of market dynamics.

Startups typically fall into one of two categories: those that enter an existing market with a new product and those that create entirely new markets. Understanding which category your startup belongs to is essential for making informed strategic decisions.

Entering an Existing Market:

If your startup is entering an existing market, the timing question becomes a matter of competition and differentiation. Founders must assess whether their product or service can outperform existing offerings in a way that captures a significant market share.

To excel in this scenario, founders should focus on identifying unmet needs or pain points in the current market. Thiel emphasizes the importance of delivering a product that is not just marginally better but substantially superior to what competitors provide.

Consider the example of ride-sharing platforms like Uber and Lyft. They entered an existing taxi market but offered a vastly improved user experience through mobile apps, real-time tracking, and flexible pricing. This innovation allowed them to disrupt the traditional taxi industry and gain rapid adoption.

In a slow-moving market, startups have the advantage of time to refine their product and gain a foothold. However, they must be prepared for the challenge of convincing customers to switch from established solutions to their new offering.

Creating a New Market:

Creating a new market is a more ambitious but potentially game-changing approach. It involves introducing a product or service that addresses a problem or fulfills a need that consumers may not even be aware of yet.

Thiel refers to these types of startups as "vertical progress" since they introduce entirely new ways of doing things. The timing question in this context revolves around gauging when the market is ready for such a disruptive innovation.

For example, when Apple introduced the iPad, it created a new market category for tablet devices. At the time, consumers didn't realize they needed a tablet, but Apple's timing was impeccable. The market was ripe for a device that offered a more versatile and portable computing experience than laptops or smartphones.

Successful startups in this category often possess a deep understanding of emerging trends and technological advancements. They anticipate latent demands and position their products to fulfill those needs as they become apparent.

To answer Thiel's timing question effectively, founders must conduct thorough market research, track industry trends, and assess consumer readiness. They should also consider external factors, such as regulatory changes or technological advancements, that could impact the timing of their entry.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's timing question underscores the significance of timing in the success of a startup. Whether entering an existing market or creating a new one, founders must carefully evaluate the dynamics at play and align their strategies with the right moment to maximize their chances of achieving "zero to one."

The Monopoly Question: Who are your competitors? (700 words)

In the world of startups and entrepreneurship, the term "monopoly" typically conjures images of dominant, all-encompassing corporations that control entire industries. However, Peter Thiel's monopoly question takes a different perspective, urging founders to think strategically about competition and market dynamics.

Thiel's approach to monopoly is rooted in the belief that startups should strive to become the undisputed leaders in a specific niche or market segment. To answer the monopoly question effectively, founders need to delve into several key aspects of competition:

Identifying Competitors

The first step is identifying who your competitors are. These can include both direct competitors offering similar products or services and indirect competitors who address the same customer needs in a different way. Thorough competitor analysis is essential.

Assessing Competitive Advantages

Thiel's monopoly question challenges founders to evaluate their competitive advantages. What sets your startup apart from the competition? Is it a superior technology, a unique approach to solving a problem, or a differentiated value proposition?

For instance, consider the competition between ride-sharing platforms Uber and Lyft. Both companies operate in the same market, but they have differentiated themselves through branding, pricing strategies, and regional focuses. Understanding these nuances is crucial for building a monopoly.

Strategies for Achieving Monopoly

Achieving a monopoly does not necessarily mean eliminating all competition. It means becoming the go-to choice for a specific group of customers or addressing a particular need so effectively that alternatives become less appealing.

To illustrate, let's look at the social media landscape. Facebook, despite facing competition from various other platforms, has achieved a near-monopoly in connecting people globally. It did so by continually improving its user experience, acquiring potential rivals like Instagram and WhatsApp, and expanding its reach.

Building Barriers to Entry

One effective strategy for establishing a monopoly is creating barriers to entry. These barriers can include intellectual property protection, network effects, economies of scale, or strong brand recognition.

For example, Amazon has built a significant barrier to entry through its extensive distribution network, Prime membership program, and fulfillment centers. These assets make it challenging for newcomers to compete effectively in the e-commerce space.

Monopoly and Long-Term Sustainability

Thiel's concept of monopoly isn't just about short-term dominance; it's about creating a sustainable advantage. Monopolies are better positioned to invest in research and development, expand their offerings, and maintain profitability over the long term.

To answer the monopoly question, founders should consider their path to achieving dominance. Is it through technological innovation, exceptional customer service, or a unique business model? The chosen strategy should align with the startup's vision and strengths.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's monopoly question encourages founders to think strategically about competition and market dynamics. While achieving a traditional monopoly may be challenging in many industries, the goal is to become the clear leader in a specific niche or segment. By identifying competitors, leveraging competitive advantages, and strategizing for long-term sustainability, startups can position themselves to achieve "zero to one."

The People Question: Do you have the right people capable of working on real product innovation? (700 words)

In the world of startups, success is often a team effort. Peter Thiel's people question underscores the importance of assembling the right talent and fostering a culture of innovation within a startup.

Startups that aim to achieve "zero to one" must have a team capable of working on real product innovation. This goes beyond having skilled professionals; it involves having individuals who can collaborate effectively, think creatively, and adapt to the dynamic nature of startup environments.

The Role of Talent

Founders should evaluate whether their team possesses the necessary skills and expertise to bring their vision to life. Are there engineers, designers, marketers, and product managers with the right qualifications and experience?

Thiel's emphasis on talent extends to leadership as well. Founders should assess their own capabilities as leaders. Are they effective communicators, decision-makers, and visionaries? Leadership plays a crucial role in shaping the startup's culture and direction.

Collaboration and Creativity

Innovation often thrives in environments where collaboration and creativity are encouraged. Startups should foster a culture where team members feel empowered to share ideas, take risks, and challenge the status quo.

Consider companies like Google and Apple, known for their innovative cultures. They prioritize hiring individuals who not only excel in their respective roles but also bring diverse perspectives and a passion for innovation.

Adaptability and Learning

The startup landscape is inherently unpredictable, and adaptability is a valuable trait. Founders should assess whether their team members are open to learning, agile in response to change, and resilient in the face of challenges.

In the fast-paced world of technology startups, the ability to pivot and iterate on ideas is often the key to success. Thiel's people question encourages founders to prioritize individuals who can thrive in this environment.

Alignment with Vision

Beyond skills and culture, alignment with the startup's vision is crucial. Founders should ensure that team members are passionate about the problem the startup is solving and committed to achieving its mission.

Thiel's people question prompts founders to reflect on whether their team members share the same long-term goals and are willing to invest the time and effort required to bring the startup's vision to fruition.

Attracting and Retaining Talent

In addition to evaluating the existing team, founders must consider their ability to attract and retain top talent. Startups often compete with larger corporations for skilled professionals, so offering competitive compensation packages and a compelling mission is essential.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's people question directs founders' attention to the critical role of talent, culture, and leadership in a startup's success. To achieve "zero to one," startups must not only have the right people on board but also nurture an environment that fosters innovation, collaboration, and adaptability. By assembling a talented, motivated, and aligned team, startups can set the stage for transformative growth.

The Distribution Question: Does your technology sell for itself? (700 words)

Distribution is a fundamental aspect of any successful business, and Peter Thiel's distribution question challenges founders to consider how effectively their technology or product reaches the market.

In essence, the distribution question asks whether the product has inherent qualities that make it sellable without significant marketing or sales efforts. If a product can "sell itself," it often enjoys a competitive advantage in terms of efficiency and scalability.

The Power of Virality

One way a product can sell itself is through virality. Viral products are those that naturally spread from user to user, often through word-of-mouth or social sharing. Startups like Dropbox and Airbnb achieved significant growth through viral mechanisms.

For example, Dropbox incentivized users to refer friends by offering additional storage space. This not only encouraged existing users to promote the service but also attracted new users, creating a self-sustaining growth loop.

Network Effects

Products that benefit from network effects can also answer Thiel's distribution question positively. Network effects occur when the value of a product or service increases as more people use it.

Social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn are prime examples. The more users join these networks, the more valuable they become to existing users, leading to organic growth.

Exceptional User Experience

An exceptional user experience can be a powerful distribution strategy. If a product is intuitive, enjoyable to use, and provides significant value from the outset, users are more likely to become advocates and attract others to the platform.

Apple is known for its focus on user experience, which has contributed to its brand loyalty and word-of-mouth marketing. People often recommend Apple products to others based on their positive experiences.

Product-Market Fit

Central to the distribution question is the concept of product-market fit. Founders must evaluate whether their product aligns perfectly with the needs and desires of their target market.

Products that achieve strong product-market fit are more likely to gain traction organically. Customers who find immense value in the product become loyal users and, in some cases, enthusiastic promoters.

Scalability and Efficiency

A product that can sell itself is typically scalable and efficient in terms of customer acquisition. Startups should assess whether their distribution channels allow for rapid and cost-effective growth.

Companies like Amazon and Google leverage their digital platforms and data-driven strategies to efficiently acquire and retain customers. Their technology-driven distribution methods are a key factor in their success.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's distribution question highlights the importance of effective and efficient distribution strategies in achieving "zero to one." Startups should aim to create products or technologies that can gain traction and grow without relying heavily on traditional marketing and sales efforts. Whether through virality, network effects, outstanding user experiences, or strong product-market fit, the ability to make a product sell itself can be a game-changer in the world of entrepreneurship.

The Durability Question: What does the market look like in 10 and 20 years? (700 words)

Looking to the future is a critical aspect of startup success, and Peter Thiel's durability question prompts founders to consider the long-term viability and sustainability of their business ideas.

Startups often focus on immediate growth and market penetration, but Thiel's question encourages a broader perspective. Founders should assess what the market landscape will look like in a decade or two and how their startup can not only survive but thrive in that future environment.

The Challenge of Predicting the Future

Predicting the future is inherently challenging, but Thiel's question encourages founders to make informed projections based on current trends, emerging technologies, and industry dynamics.

Founders should consider factors such as technological advancements, changes in consumer behavior, regulatory shifts, and competitive pressures. By analyzing these elements, startups can anticipate potential challenges and opportunities.

Adapting to Change

The durability question also emphasizes the importance of adaptability. Startups must be prepared to pivot, evolve, and innovate in response to changing market conditions.

Consider the evolution of Netflix. Originally a DVD rental service, Netflix recognized the shift toward online streaming and transitioned its business model accordingly. This adaptability has allowed Netflix to remain a dominant player in the entertainment industry.

Building Long-Term Relationships

Durability isn't just about surviving market changes; it's also about building lasting relationships with customers and stakeholders. Startups should prioritize customer satisfaction, trust, and loyalty to ensure their place in the market over the long haul.

Amazon, for example, has cultivated customer loyalty through its Prime membership program, which offers benefits like fast shipping and exclusive content. This strategy not only attracts new customers but also retains existing ones.

Sustainability and Responsibility

In today's world, sustainability and social responsibility are increasingly important considerations. Startups should assess how their business practices align with environmental, social, and governance (ESG) principles, as these factors can impact long-term sustainability.

Companies like Tesla have demonstrated how aligning with environmental goals can create a durable competitive advantage. Tesla's focus on electric vehicles and renewable energy solutions positions it well for the future as the world shifts toward sustainability.

Scenario Planning

To address the durability question effectively, startups can engage in scenario planning. This involves envisioning multiple potential futures and developing strategies to thrive in each scenario.

Scenario planning allows startups to be proactive rather than reactive. By considering a range of possibilities, they can make informed decisions that position them for success, regardless of how the market evolves.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's durability question urges founders to take a long-term view of their startup's future. By assessing market trends, embracing adaptability, building lasting relationships, prioritizing sustainability, and engaging in scenario planning, startups can increase their chances of not only surviving but thriving in the ever-changing business landscape. Ultimately, achieving "zero to one" requires a commitment to enduring success, and the durability question serves as a valuable guide in that journey.

The Secret Question: Does your innovation uncover a secret that solves a fundamental problem for the customer? (700 words)

In the realm of startups, uncovering secrets can lead to groundbreaking innovations. Peter Thiel's secret question challenges founders to examine whether their startup's innovation reveals a hidden truth or addresses a fundamental problem that resonates with customers.

The Power of Secrets

Secrets, in Thiel's context, refer to underappreciated or overlooked truths that can transform industries or create entirely new markets. Startups that uncover these secrets and build solutions around them can achieve remarkable success.

For example, Airbnb's founders identified the underutilization of spare rooms in people's homes as a secret. They realized that many homeowners were willing to rent out their spaces to travelers, leading to the creation of a platform that disrupted the hospitality industry.

Solving Fundamental Problems

Thiel's secret question also emphasizes the importance of solving fundamental problems for customers. Startups should evaluate whether their innovation addresses a core pain point or need that customers experience.

Consider the rise of electric vehicles (EVs). Companies like Tesla recognized the fundamental problem of fossil fuel dependence and environmental impact. By developing EVs that offered compelling alternatives, they tapped into a hidden truth about the future of transportation.

Customer-Centric Innovation

Successful startups prioritize customer-centric innovation. They engage with their target audience to understand their pain points, desires, and unmet needs.

Thiel's secret question encourages founders to actively seek out customer insights and feedback. By doing so, startups can refine their solutions to better align with what customers truly value.

Competitive Advantage

Startups that uncover secrets and address fundamental problems often gain a competitive advantage. Their innovations resonate deeply with customers, making it challenging for competitors to replicate their success.

Tesla, for instance, not only created an electric vehicle but also built a charging infrastructure and a brand that symbolized innovation and sustainability. This comprehensive approach has positioned Tesla as a leader in the EV market.

Long-Term Relevance

Secrets often have long-term relevance. Startups that unearth enduring truths about human behavior, industry dynamics, or technological possibilities are better positioned for sustained success.

As technology and markets evolve, startups should assess whether the secrets they've uncovered remain relevant and continue to drive value for customers. Being vigilant about changing circumstances allows them to adapt and innovate accordingly.

In conclusion, Peter Thiel's secret question encourages founders to explore the power of uncovering hidden truths and addressing fundamental customer problems. By doing so, startups can create innovations that resonate deeply with their target audience, gain a competitive advantage, and maintain long-term relevance in the ever-changing business landscape. Achieving "zero to one" often begins with the revelation of a well-kept secret that transforms industries and improves lives.


In this comprehensive blog post, we've delved into the seven questions that Peter Thiel always asks founders, exploring their significance in achieving "zero to one" and building successful startups. These questions encompass innovation, timing, competition, talent, distribution, durability, and uncovering secrets. By addressing these questions and aligning their strategies with Thiel's principles, entrepreneurs can increase their chances of creating transformative businesses.

Achieving "zero to one" is not an easy feat, but with the right mindset, approach, and guidance, startups can navigate the complex startup landscape and build ventures that reshape industries and improve the lives of their customers.

As you embark on your own entrepreneurial journey or seek to refine your startup's strategy, keep in mind the wisdom and insights shared by Peter Thiel. These principles have guided some of the most successful companies in the world and can serve as a valuable compass on your path to success.

At, we're committed to supporting startups on their journey to "zero to one." Feel free to visit our website and explore how our fully automated AI CRM can help you raise capital with confidence and control. Your success is our priority, and we look forward to being a part of your entrepreneurial story.

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